Genus Synagelides described by Bohdanowicz and Proszynski, 1987

Systematic studies on East Palaearctic Salticidae (Araneae), IV. Salticidae of Japan

Genus Synagelides Strand in Bosenberg et Strand
@The genus Synagelides appeares somewhat ant like, although less than typical ant like genera. In most of species there is a bifid retromarginal tooth, in some species reduced to a single tooth. Most characteristics is the modified male palpus: large overgrown patella articulating at right angle with relatively small femur, other parts of the palpal organ are also very special. Epigyne has complicated surface. Internal organs are also complicated and show 2 separate units of sclerotized parts: anterior unit near copulatory openings and posteriorly lying spermathecal unit. These structures are difficult to interprete and functions of their parts are not fully understood. Epigyne of Synagelides agoriformis is somewhat special but its internal structures are comparable with remaining soecies from Japan. The genus can be also recognized by very long and stout spines on metatarsus and tibia I (fig.278), as well as rather characteristics, although difficult to define colour pattern (fig.268,273,276). The strange developement of palpal organ and whole pedipalps in males is less pronounced in Synagelides nishikawai Bohdanowicz, 1979 from Nepal, which can be therefore considered an intermediate form to "normal" Salticidae. (Bohd. and Prosz.,1987)
@@@Species Synagelides@agorifomis Strand in Bosenberg et Strand, 1906

Synagelides agoriformis Strand in Bosenberg et Strand, 1906: 330, Proszynski 1976: map 210, 1979: 318-319, ff.307-315, Bohdanowicz 1979: 55-56, ff.4-8.
Material.4 males and 2 females - Synagelides agoriformis - Japan, Imazucho, Shiga Pref., 5.IV.1977, leg.Y.Nishikawa; 1 female - Synagelides agoriformis - Japan, Minoo City, Osaka Pref., 26.III.1977, leg.Y.Nishikawa; 2 females - Synagelides agoriformis - Japan, Shodoshima Island, Kanagawa Pref., leg.T.Yaginuma - coll.J.Proszynski; 1 female - holotypus - Synagelides agoriformis Strand. 1 Typus. Japan. Donitz S. - coll. SMF 2632.
@Male. Cephalothorax fawn, eye field anteriorly blackish and wrinkled, with brown setae. Eye surroundings intense black, over eyes I a row of light medially bent setae and longer brown hairs (figs.267). Ventral margin of carapace dark brown. Measurement as the table.
@Leg I: pattern and spines on metatarsus and tibia as in female (among 5 examined specimens only 1 has 6 spines on prolateral surface of left tibia). Legs II-IV generally as in female but more variable in colour and pattern. Average length of segments of legs as table.
@ Abdomen in all specimens with about the same pattern (fig.267): anterior two fifth of its length light brown, laterally with longitudinal tufts of white adpressed and flattened setae, surrounded dark brown. The rest of abdomen dark brown. At its mid length two transverse light yellow belts: first undulated, with a pair of lateral white adpressed and fllatened setae, second one triangular. Lateral surface dark brown, with a net of delicate light longitudinal lines. Anal tubercle light (dark in one of specimens), spinnerets light.
@Clypeus, chelicerae, and their definiton as in female. Pedipalps big, characterized by much enlarged and swollen patella, connected at the right angle near its half length with much smaller femur (figs.268). On prolateral surface of femur a distinct tooth (femoral apophysis) possibly articulating with a protuberance on patella (fig.270). Bulbus with 2 coils of canal and apical husky apophysis on retrolateral side (its median part strongly developed - fig.271). Embolus spirally coiled, much broadened and flattened at its base, distally thin. Dorsal surface of cymbium triangular, with a prominent tooth on prolateral side and transverse shallow groove articulating with dorsal tibial apophysis.
@Sternum as in female. Venter also similar to that of female: dark chevron on light background, in the lighter specimens abdomen thoroughly light.
@Specimens from Primore, USSR (Proszynski 1979: ff.307-310) differ slightly in structure of pedipalps: the apophysis on retrolateral surface of tibia is distinctly hook shaped. Husky apophsis on bulbus much broader and bigger, embolus less broad at its base, but distinctly broader in its distal part and shorter. Most evident diiferences are in dorsal surfaces of cymbium: no prominent tooth on prolateral side, and the groove like incision reaching half length of cymbium. (from Bohd. and Prosz.,1987)
@Female Cephalothorax fawn, eye field surface pitted, covered with short setae, eyes surroundings intense black with longer dark hairs. Above eyes I an additional row of medially bent setae. Ventral margin of carapace and eye field surface more or less dark (fig.273,276). Mean of measurements as the table for 5 specimens:
@Leg I: tarsus and patella yellow, other segments yellowish fawn, with longitudinal brown patches, on dorsal surface of tibia light longitudinal streak. On both prolateral and retrolateral surfaces of metatarsus a row of two long and strong spines reaching almost the end of the tarsus (except proximal retrolateral spine which is shorter, equal to half corresponding prolateral spine). On tibia I 5 pairs of similarly arranged spines reaching almost the end of tibia. Among five studied specimens one has only 4 spines on prolateral surface of tibia of right leg, another one has 6 spines on retrolateral surface of left leg (the distal, additional one being the least). Legs II-IV yellow, with longitudinal dark streaks on prolateral surfaces of segments (inconspicious on tarsus and metatarsus), and more delicate patches on retrolateral surfaces of some segments. Mean length of segments of legs as the table.
@Abdomen generally dark, covered with short dark setae, with four transverase light belts: two distinct on the mid length of abdomen, one more inconspicious belt at the first pair of apodemae and one on anterior slope of abdomen, all remaining a herring bone pattern. Lateral surfaces grey, anteriorly with a net of delicate light longitudinal lines. Anal tubercule grey, spinnerets light.
@Clypeus very narrow, dark brown or brown on less pigmented specimens. Chelicerae yellowish brown with a bifid retromarginal tooth (its shape varies: in one of specimens the smaller distal top is hardly visible, both tops are almost of the same height in another specimen). Pedipalps variable in colour from uniformly yellow to yellowish brown with dark patella.
@Sternum transparent, yellow to yellowish grey with scarce setae, bordered with a distinct brown line.
@Abdomen dark, with three light longitudinal belts very variable in shape and contrast.
@Epigyne characterized by a pair of broad, diagonal pockets opening laterally, anteriorly possesing a second pair of smaller and deeper grooves. Shape and position of canals and spermathecae seen through semitransparent plate variable to some extent in difference specimens. The presumed copulatory openings lead medially from the grooves at the bottom of "pockets" in form of broad, thin walled canals.
@Then they turn suddenly laterally and posteriorly into the middle, well sclerotized part of canals, enclosed into a thin walled bladders (fig.275). From that point their further way to spermathecae is not clear, though they seem to make coils passing from well sclerotized part into some delicate, poorly visible structures.
@Spermathecae thickest, their wide, proximal part opening through a short, curved laterally canal with a gland like branch somewhat at the bottom of the diagonal pockets. Distal parts of spermathecae spherically protuberant, with walls bulged into round openings to the fertilization ducts.
@The reciprocal position of proximal opening of the spermathecae and the thin walled bladders as well as the course of the proximal, thin walled part of copulatory canals is rather difficult to interprete.
@The temporary preparations in glycerine gave better image, when mounted in balsam afterwards shown some change in organs picture. (from Bohd. and Prosz.,1987,132-138)
‰ 0.90 length of eye field height h= height/L of CT
1.57 length of cephalothorax 1.07 width of eye field I (on level of eyes I) a=0.57 L of EF/L of CT
1.75 length of abdomen 1.10 width of eye field III (on level of eyes III) b=0.97 W of eye I/W of eye III
d=1.35@@(length of tibia IV:lenght of tibia III)@@ c=0.84 L of EF/W of EF eye I
Š 1.00 length of eye@field height h=
1.87 length of cephalothorax 1.25 width of eye field I (on level of eyes I) a=0.53
2.62 length of abdomen 1.27 width of eye field III (on level of eyes III) b=0.98
d=1.33 (length of tibia IV:lenght of tibia III) c=0.80
Length of segments of legs:
leg femur patella tibia metatar. tarsus ALL
‰ I 0.35 0.52 0.95 1.15 (2.97)?
II 0.32 0.52 0.40 0.72 (1.96)?
III 0.37 0.67 0.60 0.37 0.72 2.73
IV 0.42 0.90 0.90 0.50 1.02 3.74
Š I 0.37 0.57 1.07 0.87 1.20 2.88
II 0.37 0.60 0.62 0.50 0.90 2.99
III 0.40 0.80 0.70 0.45 0.92 3.27
IV 0.47 1.15 1.15 0.60 1.22 4.59
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ (from Bohd. and Prosz.,1987)

@@@@Species Synagelides@annae Bohdanowicz, 1979

Synagelides annae Bodanowicz, 1979:56-59. ff.9-17.
Material. 1Š-holotype, 1‰a-@allotypus, 1‰- paratypus -@Japan:MtDHikosanCFukuoka Pref., 27.VIII.1959, leg.Chiyoko Okuma- coll. T.Yaginuma.
Male differs from S.agoriformis in ; Cephalotholax dark brown, eye field fawn. Legs II-IV yellow. Abdomen generally dark grey with small pale spots, anteriorly with a big lighter yellowish spot and 2 white longitudinal lines reaching htree+fifth of abdomen length. Palpal organ with long tibial apophysis adpressed to cymbium, its basal part triangular and its apical half narrow. Dorsal surface lomg, with long posterior process (figs. 280-283).
Female differs from S.agoriformis in: Eye field dull yellow and wrinkled, posteriorly to eyes I light, medially bent setae.
Legs uniformly yellow, metatarsus and tibia I a little darker, on tibia four pairs of spines (fig.287).
Abdomen with only one light transverse belt connected at about three-fifth of abdomen's lengh with three longitudinal stripes (median broad and light and on each side a narrow white one).
Ventrally abdomen light grey. Epigyne much diffrent resembles that of S.cavaleriei (Schenkel, 1963) and other species, but differs in details (figs.284-286).